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Passing Time with Passer

In the latest installment of Le Jour où tout a basculé, we find two very different uses of the verb passer. The first is a direct cognate of the English verb "to pass," referring to time passing:

 

Quatre mois ont passé.
Four months have passed.
Cap. 30, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mon père s'oppose à ma passion - Part 6

 

The second, referring to taking an exam, is a false cognate. You might assume that passer son bac means "to pass one's baccalaureate exam." But that's wrong! Passer in this context actually means "to take":  

 

J'ai passé mon bac.
took my baccalaureate.
Cap. 41, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mon père s'oppose à ma passion - Part 6

 

If you want to talk about passing an exam, use the verb réussir (to succeed):

 

Demain il réussira son examen.
Tomorrow he will pass his exam.
Cap. 27, Le saviez-vous? - Conjugaison des verbes du 2ème groupe au futur simple

 

Passer's other meanings are more predictable. You can use it transitively (i.e., with an object) to to talk about passing something to someone:

 

Passe le micro. 
Pass the mic. 
Cap. 54, Arles: Le marché d'Arles

 

Or you can use it intransitively (without an object) to describe someone passing by or passing from one place to another:

 

Tous les ans, effectivement, nous demandons à Saint-Nicolas de passer.
Every year, in fact, we ask Saint Nicholas to pass by.
Cap. 44, Grand Lille TV: Focus - la tradition de Saint-Nicolas

 

Et maintenant on va passer en cuisine avec le chef.
And now we'll go into the kitchen with the chef.
Cap. 33, Parigot: Le bistrot

 

Just as you can "pass time" (or "spend time") in English, you can passer du temps in French: 

 

Et puis ça permet de passer un bon petit moment ensemble.
And then it allows us to spend a good bit of time together.
Cap. 47, Actus Quartier: Fête de quartier Python-Duvernois - Part 2

 

The expression passer pour means "to pass for," as in "to be taken for" or "seem like":

 

La maîtrise des synonymes vous permettra donc d'élargir votre vocabulaire, 

mais aussi, de ne pas passer pour un psychopathe.
Mastering synonyms will therefore allow you to broaden your vocabulary, but also to not be taken for a psychopath.
Cap. 23-24, Le saviez-vous? - Les synonymes

 

As passer is such a versatile verb, it's no surprise that it's used in many, many common expressions. We'll pass along a handful of them to you:

 

passer à autre chose - to move on to something else
passer à l'acte - to take action
passer à la caisse - to pay/checkout
passer à la télévision - to be on TV
passer à table - to sit down for a meal (also has the figurative meaning "to snitch" or "spill the beans")
passer un coup de fil - to make a phone call
passer de la musique - to put on some music
passer au bloc - to go under the knife/have surgery
passer au peigne fin - to go over with a fine-tooth comb
passer à côté de - to miss/miss out on
laisser passer sa chance - to miss one's chance

 

You can find even more expressions on this WordReference page.

 

And to learn about the reflexive form of passerse passer, check out our lesson Se Passer: To Bypass and Pass By.

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One Word, Two Genders

You may know that all French nouns are either masculine or feminine, but did you know that some nouns can be both? A word like après-midi (afternoon), for example, can be either masculine or feminine depending on the speaker's preference:

 

Vous deux, là, qu'est-ce que vous allez faire de beau cet après-midi?
You two, here, what are you going to do that's exciting this afternoon?
Cap. 57, Actus Quartier: Fête de quartier Python-Duvernois - Part 1

 

On passe une super après-midi.
You spend a great afternoon.
Cap. 90, LCM: Rétine argentique, le paradis des photographes

 

Un après-midi (masculine) and une après-midi (feminine) both mean "an afternoon." But usually, when a word's gender changes, its meaning changes too. Take the word mode, for example. La mode (feminine) means "fashion," but le mode (masculine) means "mode" or "(grammatical) mood":

 

Le milieu de la mode est aussi touché hein, forcément.
The world of fashion is also affected, you know, necessarily.
Cap. 36, Cap 24: Paris - Alessandro fait les Puces! - Part 1

 

Le temps présent fait partie du mode indicatif.
The present tense is part of the indicative mood.
Cap. 10, Le saviez-vous?: Le mode indicatif, c'est quoi?

 

Like mode, a lot of dual-gender words end in -e. Another common one is poste. When masculine, it means "post" as in "position" or "job" (among other things), and when feminine, it means "post" as in "post office" or "mail":

 

J'ai trouvé mon premier poste de libraire
I found my first bookseller position
Cap. 3, Gaëlle: Librairie "Livres in Room"

 

Si je venais à gagner vous m'enverrez mon chèque par la poste.
If I were to win, you'll send me my check in the mail.
Cap. 27, Patricia: Pas de crédit dans le monde des clones - Part 2

 

You'll most often find the word livre in its masculine form, meaning "book." When feminine, it means "pound," as in the unit of weight and currency:

 

L'extérieur d'un livre s'appelle la couverture.
The outside of a book is called the cover.
Cap. 4, Manon et Clémentine: Vocabulaire du livre

 

Une livre équivaut à environ quatre cent cinquante-quatre grammes. 
One pound is equal to around four hundred fifty-four grams. 

 

Voile has related meanings in both its masculine and feminine forms. Both refer to things made of fabric—a veil (un voile) and a sail (une voile): 

 

Un niqab, c'est donc un voile intégral qui ne laisse voir que les yeux.
So a niqab is a full-length veil that only shows the eyes.
Cap. 10, Cap Caen Normandie TV: Danse - Héla Fattoumi se dévoile

 

Il a une seule voile
It has a single sail.
Cap. 11, Fred et Miami Catamarans: Les Bateaux

 

This video takes you on a tour (un tour) of Paris, making a requisite stop at the Eiffel Tower (la Tour Eiffel):

 

La Tour Eiffel, qui est le symbole de la France.
The Eiffel Tower, which is the symbol of France. 
Cap. 20, Paris Tour: Visite guidée de Paris


Gender can be tricky in French, doubly so when you're dealing with words that can be both masculine and feminine. Remembering them is just a matter of practice. You can find a comprehensive list of dual-gender words on this page.

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Pas de souci!

If you have any worries, concerns, or problems in a French-speaking country, souci is the word to use to express your predicament. In the first two senses ("worry" and "concern"), it's synonymous with inquiétude

 

Ne te fais pas de souci. Fais-moi confiance!
Don't worry. Trust me!
Cap. 6, Il était une fois... l’Homme: 6. Le siècle de Périclès - Part 4

 

Alors, le souci, quand elles en font deux, c'est que si elles sont pas très bonnes productrices de lait...
So the concern, when they have two, is that if they are not very good producers of milk...
Cap. 4, Ferme de la Croix de Pierre: Les chèvres

 

Pas d'inquiétude. De nos jours, le pont est protégé d'un grillage.
No worries. Nowadays, the bridge is protected by a wire fence. 
Cap. 29, De nouvelles découvertes avec Marion: Le parc des Buttes Chaumont

 

Souci and inquiétude both have verbal forms (se soucier, s'inquiéter) and adjectival forms (soucieux/soucieuse, inquiet/inquiète): 

 

Sans se soucier [or: s'inquiéterde dévoiler ses sentiments
Without worrying about revealing her feelings
Cap. 7, Vous avez du talent: Paulin - "Elle"

 

Donc si vous êtes un petit peu soucieux [or: inquiet] de votre santé...
So if you're a little bit concerned about your health...
Cap. 16, Voyage dans Paris: Cité Florale

 

Un souci is also "a problem" or "an issue" you might have with something—for instance, if there's something wrong with a bike you've rented: 

 

...si y a aucun souci avec les pédales.
...if there's any problem with the pedals.
Cap. 34, Amal: Vélib

 

Et si y a le moindre souci avec un vélo...
And if there's the slightest issue with a bike...
Cap. 57, Amal: Vélib

 

But un souci doesn't always involve a sense of frustration or anxiety. It can also mean "a concern" as in something you really care about and pay a lot of attention to. 

 

Le souci du détail est un dogme.
Concern over detail [or: Attention to detail] is a dogma.
Cap. 27, Le Journal: Chocolats

 

Nous avons un grand souci de l'environnement. 
We have a great concern for [or: We really care about] the environment. 

 

There are also the expressions par souci de and dans un souci de, both meaning "in the interest of" or "for the sake of":

 

Si une partie de Lyon a été retenue, c'est d'abord par souci de [or: dans un souci decohérence
If a portion of Lyon has been contained, it is primarily for the sake of coherence
Cap. 11, Le Journal: La grippe aviaire - Part 2

 

Finally, souci is also the word for "marigold." So while the informal expression pas de souci most often means "no worries," it can also mean "no marigolds"!

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People and Individuals

Did you know that in French, "a person" is always feminine, regardless of their gender? That is, the word personne is always feminine, even when it refers to a male person. Our friend Farmer François refers to himself as une personne (not un personne) when talking to us about his vegetable stand: 

 

Moi, je suis une personne qui est né dans la banlieue.
Me, I'm someone who was born in the suburbs.
Cap. 48, Farmer François: Le stand de légumes

 

And in another video, a woman describes a male friend of hers as la seule personne (not le seul personne):

 

C'était un Français, bien sûr. C'est la seule personne que je connais à West Berlin.
It was a Frenchman, of course. He's the only person I knew in West Berlin.
Cap. 18-19, Le Journal: Le mur de Berlin s'écroule

 

On the flip side, "an individual" is always masculine: 

 

Ce n'est pas Bérangère qui la regarde mais un individu pour le moins étrange.
It's not Bérangère who is watching her but a rather strange individual.
Cap. 10, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Espion dans l'immeuble - Part 2

 

Elle est un individu sain. 
She is a healthy individual.

 

There's an interesting combination of personne and individu in this article about the recent evacuation of Mont-Saint-Michel. The subject of the article is a man who made threats against police at the popular French tourist destination. He's designated as both il (referring to individu) and elle (referring to personne):

 

Selon Ouest-France, l'individu aurait affirmé vouloir «tuer des policiers». Descendu de la navette, il se serait ensuite volatilisé avant l'arrivée des gendarmes.... Plusieurs témoins ont signalé cette personne alors qu'elle rentrait sur le site touristique, a annoncé la gendarmerie.


According to Ouest-France, the individual expressed a desire to "kill police officers." After getting off the shuttle, he reportedly disappeared before officers arrived.... Several witnesses identified this person when he returned to the tourist site, the police reported. 

 

Don't forget that personne can also be used as a pronoun in combination with ne, meaning "no one":

 

Maintenant on dit: "Il n'y a pas un chat", pour parler d'un endroit où il n'y a personne.
Now one says "there's not one cat" [not a soul] to talk about a place where there isn't anyone.
Cap. 13, Manon et Clémentine: Mots et animaux

 

Personne ne peut vivre là-dedans!
No one could live in there!
Cap. 16, Il était une fois - les Explorateurs: 10. Amerigo Vespucci - Part 4

 

Stay tuned for Patricia's upcoming video on ne... personne and similar expressions, part of her series on negation

 

Thanks to Michael H. for bringing this topic to our attention! 

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A Lesson in Pieces

The latest episode of Le Jour où tout a basculé begins with a homeless man asking pedestrians for une petite pièce, which is not "a little piece," but rather "a small coin" or "some small change":

 

Monsieur, s'il vous plaît, une petite pièce, un petit ticket restaurant...
Sir, please, a small coin, a small restaurant voucher...
Cap. 30, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mon père s'oppose à ma passion - Part 1

 

Vous n'auriez pas une petite pièce?
You wouldn't have some small change?
Cap. 35, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mon père s'oppose à ma passion - Part 1

 

Une pièce is short for une pièce de monnaie, "a piece of change." Monnaie is where we get the English word "money" (l'argent in French), but it actually means "change" or "currency":

 

Nous allons récupérer de la monnaie
We're going to retrieve some change
Cap. 50, Lionel: Voyage en train - Part 1

 

Une pièce can also be short for une pièce de théâtre ("a theater piece"), that is, "a play":

 

...en général, on prenait la pièce d'un auteur connu.
...we usually picked a play from a well-known author.
Cap. 33, Flora et le théâtre

 

And its meanings don't stop there. Une pièce is also "a room," which you might think of as a "piece" of a building:

 

Mais venez avec moi, dans l'autre pièce.
But come with me into the other room.
Cap. 25, Il était une fois - Notre Terre: 9. Les écosystèmes - Part 7

 

Sometimes, une pièce is just a plain old "piece," whether referring to a piece or part of something else:

 

Ce puzzle a cinq cents pièces
This puzzle has five hundred pieces.

 

J'ai besoin d'une pièce détachée pour mon vélo. 
I need a spare part for my bike. 

 

Or referring to an item or object, such as a piece of art or an article of clothing:

 

Ici, chaque pièce "d'art de la table" est unique.
Here, every piece of "table art" is unique.
Cap. 9, Canal 32: Mesnil-Saint-Loup - moines artisans

 

Alors que c'est un ciré de création en pièce unique, quoi.
Although it's a unique piece, a designer raincoat, you know.
Cap. 27, Lyon: La Croix-Rousse - Part 2

 

You might also see pièce used as an adverb, generally when referencing the price of something. In this case it means "each" or, in a more direct translation, "apiece": 

 

Les livres d'occasion coûtent un euro pièce
The used books cost one euro each [or: apiece]. 

 

For even more pieces of information about the word pièce, see this extensive Larousse entry.

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Idiomatic Animals

While discussing pigeons in Paris with his friend Lea, Lionel brings up an amusing French idiom referencing those ubiquitous city birds:

 

Alors se faire pigeonner en français, c'est vraiment se faire arnaquer, se faire avoir par une personne qui vous a soutiré de l'argent. 
So "se faire pigeonner" [to be taken for a ride] in French is really to get ripped off, to be had by a person who has extracted money from you.
Cap. 54-59, Lea & Lionel L: Le parc de Bercy - Part 1

 

Se faire pigeonner literally means "to be taken for a pigeon." In English too, "a pigeon" can refer to someone who's gullible or easily swindled. Pigeons get a bad rap in both languages! 

 

Let's take a look at some more animal expressions and idioms used in Yabla videos. Here's another bird-related one:

 

Oui. J'avoue être un peu poule mouillée.
Yes. I admit to being a bit of a wet hen [a wimp].
Cap. 23, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Notre appartement est hanté - Part 3 

 

Calling someone poule mouillée is equivalent to calling them "chicken." A slightly less pejorative poultry-inspired moniker is un canard:

 

Qu'ils me disent que je m'affiche, qu'ils me traitent de canard
That they'll say that I am showing off, that they'll call me a duck [a slave to love]
Cap. 6-7, Grand Corps Malade: Comme une évidence

 

Un canard is a person who's so lovestruck they'll do whatever their partner desires. Believe it or not, it's also a slang term for "newspaper." There's even a famous French newspaper called Le Canard enchaîné (The Chained Duck), which Lionel discusses in a few other videos

 

Don't confuse canard with cafard, the word for "cockroach." When used metaphorically, cafard means "depression" or "the blues":

 

Mon cafard me lâche moins souvent qu'autrefois...
My blues don't let me go as much as before...
Cap. 8, Debout Sur Le Zinc: Les mots d'amour

 

The expression avoir le cafard means "to be depressed," or literally, "to have the cockroach." And there's the adjective cafardeux/cafardeuse, which can mean either "depressing" or "depressed." Encountering a cockroach in your home can certainly be depressing, to say the least!

 

Though dogs are as beloved in France as they are in other countries, the word chien (dog) typically means "bad" or "nasty" when used as an adjective:

 

Fais demain quand le présent est chien
Make tomorrow when the present is bad
Cap. 3, Corneille: Comme un fils

 

You'll find chien in a couple of idioms involving bad weather, such as un temps de chien (nasty weather) and un coup de chien (a storm):

 

On va avoir un coup de chien, regarde!
We're going to have a dog's blow [stormy weather], look!
Cap. 55, Il était une fois - les Explorateurs: 10. Amerigo Vespucci - Part 5

 

You can also say un temps de cochon (pig weather) instead of un temps de chien:

 

Et aujourd'hui on a pas un temps de cochon par contre.
And today we don't have pig weather [rotten weather] however.
Cap. 22, Lionel: La Cathédrale de Toul - Part 2

 

In American English, "pigs" is a slang term for "cops." But the French call them vaches (cows):

 

Mort aux vaches, mort aux cons!
Death to the cows ["pigs," i.e., cops], death to the jerks!
Cap. 5, Patrice Maktav: La Rue

 

Finally, they don't celebrate April Fools' Day in France, but rather "April Fish":

 

En tout cas j'espère que ce n'est pas un poisson d'avril
In any event, I hope that it's not an April fish [April fool]
Cap. 21, Lionel: à Lindre-Basse - Part 5

 

You can find out more about the poisson d'avril tradition here. And be sure to check out Manon and Clémentine's video Mots et animaux to learn some more expressions featuring cats, dogs, and wolves.

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To Doubt or Not to Doubt

In the latest episode of Le Jour où tout a basculé, Sarah receives some troubling news from her son Nino that could put her job in jeopardy:

 

Sarah ne se doute pas un instant de la tournure des évènements.
Sarah doesn't suspect for a moment the turn of events. 
Cap. 2-3, Le Jour où tout a basculé: J'ai volé pour nourrir mon fils - Part 6

 

The verb douter looks a lot like the English verb "to doubt," and indeed, the two are exact cognates: 

 

Et puis, je commençais aussi à douter.
And then, I also began to doubt.
Cap. 26, Le Jour où tout a basculé: À la recherche de mon père - Part 3

 

But se douter, the reflexive form of douter, doesn't mean "to doubt oneself," as you might expect. Instead, it means "to suspect" or "to guess": 

 

Mais il ne se doute pas qu'à sa place va se présenter Edna, la complice de Louise.
But little does he know [he doesn't suspect] that in her place will be Edna, Louise's accomplice.
Cap. 63-65, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mes grands-parents sont infidèles - Part 4

 

If you're really certain about something, you can use the phrase se douter bien:

 

Avec un regard comme celui-là, on se doute bien qu'il a dû en voir.
With a look like this, one might well guess that he must have seen a lot.
Cap. 1, Le Journal: Le photographe Cartier-Bresson

 

Je me doute bien qu'il sait comment cuisiner.
I'm sure he knows how to cook.

 

Both douter and se douter can be followed by de or que. (Se) douter de always comes before a noun (as in Sarah ne se doute pas un instant de la tournure des évènements), while (se) douter que always comes before an independent clause (as in je me doute bien qu'il sait comment cuisiner).

 

But douter and se douter differ in another important way besides their meaning. While se douter que always takes the indicative mood (since it expresses a certainty or near certainty), douter que can take the indicative or the subjunctive depending on context. In general, douter que takes the subjunctive in the affirmative and the indicative in the negative: 

 

Je doute qu'il sache comment cuisiner.
I doubt he knows how to cook.

 

Je ne doute pas qu'elle sait la meilleure façon d'y arriver.   
I don't doubt she knows the best way to get there.

 

As you may recall, the subjunctive is used to express a wish, uncertainty, or doubt. So if you're saying you don't doubt something, it makes sense that you would use the indicative rather than the subjunctive in that case. 

 

We'll be back with a new lesson soon, sans aucun doute (without a doubt)!

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Sensé(e) or Censé(e)?

The adjectives sensé(e) and censé(e) are easy to confuse, since they have the same pronunciation and almost the same spelling (in other words, they're homophones). Sensé(e) is related to the English word "sense," and means "sensible," "reasonable," or "sane": 

 

J'étais face à trois personnes que je considérais comme étant parfaitement sensées.
I was facing three people whom I considered to be perfectly sane.
Cap. 80-81, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Notre appartement est hanté - Part 5

 

Censé(e) might remind you of the words "census," "censor," or "censure," but it means something quite different. It's the word for "supposed," as in "supposed to do something." Just like "supposed to," it's nearly always preceded by the verb "to be" (être) and followed by an infinitive: 
 

On est censé faire réparer des objets qui ont quelques problèmes. 
We're supposed to bring items that have some problems for repair.
Cap. 2, Actus de Quartier: Repair Café

 

On était censé n'avoir aucun souci, avoir des centrales complètement fiables...
They were supposed to have no concerns, to have totally reliable power plants...
Cap. 25, Manif du Mois: Fukushima plus jamais ça

 

Alors que la police, elle est censée être là pour nous protéger.
While the police are supposed to be there to protect us.
Cap. 14, Banlieues françaises: jeunes et policiers, l'impossible réconciliation? - Part 2

 

You can always say supposé(e) instead of censé(e), which might be a little easier to remember:

 

...son fameux pont qui était supposé être un lieu où [on] profitait de beaux panoramas.
...its famous bridge, which was supposed to be a place where you enjoy beautiful panoramas.
Cap. 26-27, De nouvelles découvertes avec Marion: Le parc des Buttes Chaumont

 

Or you can use the verb devoir, especially in the past tense:

 

...bien qu'elle se demanda en quoi cela devait l'aider à se rendre au bal.
...although she wondered in what way that was supposed to help her get to the ball.
Cap. 47-48, Contes de fées: Cendrillon - Part 1

 

Whichever version of "supposed to" you use is perfectly sensé!

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Ça se dit en français?

In Part 2 of "Elle a banni le sucre pendant un an," Danièle Gerkens, a journalist at Elle magazine, talks about the health benefits she experienced after cutting sugar from her diet for one year. When the year was almost up, she was expecting to break her sugar fast with mountains of whipped cream, but it was actually a single piece of dark chocolate that did her in:

 

Je me disais que j'allais me rouler dans la chantilly, et cetera. Et puis en fait, plus ça arrivait, plus je me disais, mais qu'est-ce que je vais faire?
I told myself that I was going to wallow in whipped cream, et cetera. And then in fact, the closer it came [to the end], the more I was wondering, but what am I going to do?
Cap. 102-104, Le Figaro: Elle a banni le sucre pendant un an - Part 2

 

Note the two different translations of je me disais here: "I told myself" and "I was wondering." The reflexive verb se dire can mean a number of things depending on context, namely "to tell/say to oneself" and "to wonder/think." In a sense, these both mean the same thing: when you wonder or think about something, you're telling yourself about it. 

 

When multiple people se disent, they could be thinking about something or telling themselves something, but they could also just be talking to each other: 

 

Christine et Alice sont de meilleures amies. Elles se disent tout. 
Christine and Alice are best friends. They tell each other everything.

 

Se dire can also mean "to say of oneself," or in other words, "to claim to be":

 

Le Charles de Gaulle, où la direction se dit d'abord victime de son image.
Charles de Gaulle [Hospital], where the management claims first of all to be a victim of its image.
Cap. 29, Le Journal: Hôpital ultra-moderne à Burkina Faso

 

Or se dire can simply mean "to be said," which has a few different connotations. Here Danièle is (somewhat cheekily) talking about something she thinks is taboo and can't be mentioned in public. Believe it or not, she's referring to her love of milk chocolate! 

 

Je sais, ça se dit pas, mais j'adorais ça.
I know you're not supposed to say it, but that's what I loved.
Cap. 112, Le Figaro: Elle a banni le sucre pendant un an - Part 2

 

In its most general sense, se dire refers to anything that "is said" in everyday language:

 

Par contre, "faire le beau" se dit d'un chien qui se tient sur les pattes arrière pour réclamer un sucre.
On the other hand, faire le beau is said of a dog that stands on its hind legs to beg for a lump of sugar.
Cap. 24-25, Margaux et Manon: Emplois du verbe faire

 

"Je n'ai pas des biscuits": ça se dit en français? -Non. Il faut dire: "je n'ai pas de biscuits".
Can you say je n'ai pas des biscuits in French? -No. You have to say je n'ai pas de biscuits [I don't have any cookies].

 

Don't confuse ça se dit with ça te dit (or ça vous dit in the plural), which means "how does that sound" or "how would you like..." (literally, "does it speak to you"):

 

Ça te dit de réviser les multiples sens de l'expression "se dire"? 
How would you like to review the multiple meanings of the expression se dire

 

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Bouffer de la bonne bouffe

There are two new videos dealing with food on Yabla this week. The first is the latest episode of Le Jour où tout a basculé, which focuses on a struggling frozen-food worker and her difficult son. The second is an interview with Christian Le Squer, the head chef at the three-Michelin-starred restaurant Le Cinq. Both videos contain a good number of interesting food-related words, which we'll go over in this lesson. 

 

1. Des pâtes

Y a quoi pour le dîner? -Des pâtes.
What's for dinner? -Pasta.
Cap. 3-4, Le Jour où tout a basculé: J'ai volé pour nourrir mon fils - Part 1  

"Pasta" is a singular noun, but when you say you're having pasta for dinner, you don't mean you're just having one piece of pasta, right? That's why you say des pâtes (plural) in French when talking about a pasta meal. Une pâte (singular) refers to one piece of pasta, and it's also the word for "paste," "pastry," and "dough." Don't confuse it with le pâté, which means—you guessed it—"pâté."

 

 

2. Bouffer

Pourtant, ça empêche pas mes potes de bouffer de la viande.
Even so, that doesn't stop my buddies from eating meat.
Cap. 49,  Le Jour où tout a basculé: J'ai volé pour nourrir mon fils - Part 1  

This is a very common slang word meaning "to eat." You can use it instead of the standard verb manger when speaking informally. And instead of la nourriture (food), you can say la bouffe.

 

 

3. Des plats surgelés

Sarah est secrétaire dans une société de fabrication de plats surgelés.
Sarah is a secretary at a frozen-food manufacturing company.
Cap. 35, Le Jour où tout a basculé: J'ai volé pour nourrir mon fils - Part 1  

Des plats surgelés are frozen foods, but the term literally means "frozen dishes." Surgelé(e) is mostly used in food contexts and is often interchangeable with the related adjective congelé(e). The more general word for "frozen" is simply gelé(e). 

 

 

4. Le couvert 

Une quarantaine de couverts...
About forty place settings...
Cap. 9, Christian Le Squer: Je ne fais que goûter!

Couvert is the past participle of the verb couvrir (to cover), but when used as a noun (le couvert) it means "place setting" or "cutlery." This makes sense if you think about it, since when you set a table, you cover it with plates, glasses, and silverware. In fact, the phrase mettre le couvert means "to set the table," or literally, "to put down the place setting." 

 

 

5. Torréfier 

Faut la faire torréfier.
It's got to be roasted.
Cap. 23, Christian Le Squer: Je ne fais que goûter!

Christian Le Squer is referring to a hazelnut (une noisette) that he thinks needs to be roasted. Torréfier is mainly used when talking about roasting nuts or coffee beans. When you're roasting meat or vegetables, you use the verb rôtir or faire rôtir

 

 

6. Une entrée

viande, poisson, entrée, et sucrée
meat, fish, starters, and sweets
Cap. 34, Christian Le Squer: Je ne fais que goûter!

In American English, "entrée" is another word for "main course." But une entrée actually means an "appetizer" or "starter" in French. It also means "an entrance." To remember this difference in meaning, just think of an appetizer as the "entrance" to a meal. If you'd like to learn the history of the word "entrée" in English, check out this interesting blog post.

 

And for more food-related words, see this Yabla lesson

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Training Dogs in French

Lionel is back with his cousin Jean-Pierre, who, in addition to being a wildlife expert, is also a dog expert. With the help of his trusty border collie, Chic, Jean-Pierre gives Lionel some helpful pointers on training dogs.

 

In part two of the series, Jean-Pierre gives Chic a number of basic dog commands, which Chic performs perfectly. We'll go over some of those commands in this lesson. You may want to revisit our lessons on the imperative mood before reading on, since most of the commands are in that mood.

 

We'll start with the most basic ones—"come," "look," and "sit": 

 

Viens! Regarde. Viens. Assis!
Come! Look. Come. Sit!
Cap. 31-33, Lionel: au club canin - Part 2

 

Of the above commands, can you spot the one that isn't in the imperative? If you guessed assis, you're correct! Assis is in fact the past participle of the verb s'asseoir (to sit) and literally means "seated." Jean-Pierre could also have said assieds-toi (sit), which is the true imperative of the verb s'asseoir, but assis is more commonly used as a command for dogs. 

 

Jean-Pierre uses another past participle as a command a few captions later: 

 

Allez, couché.
Go on, lie down.
Cap. 39, Lionel: au club canin - Part 2

 

Couché is the past participle of coucher (to go to bed), but to a well-trained dog, it's a command to "lie down." 

 

After Jean-Pierre throws a ball, he says: 

 

Prends! Voilà. Apporte
Catch! That's it. Fetch
Cap. 50-52, Lionel: au club canin - Part 2

 

Prends and apporte are imperative forms of the verbs prendre (to take) and apporter (to bring). So it makes sense that they also mean "catch" and "fetch."

 

Jean-Pierre uses another word for "catch" at another point in the video: 

 

Tu sais attraper, là?
Can you catch, there? 
Cap. 35, Lionel: au club canin - Part 2

 

Finally, he tells Chic to heel, or, literally, to "come to foot": 

 

Viens au pied, là.
Come to foot [heel], there.
Cap. 45, Lionel: au club canin - Part 2

 

You'll also find a fair number of races de chiens (dog breeds) mentioned in this video: 

 

un teckel - a dachshund
un dalmatien - a Dalmatian 
un chien de chasse - a hunting dog
un berger allemand - a German shepherd
un chien terrier - a terrier (un terrier also means "a burrow")
un bâtard - a mutt 

 

And of course, there's un border collie, like Chic!

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Silence, moteur, action!

Daniel Benchimol concludes his latest video, on the town of Montmorency, a little differently than he usually does. He introduces us to Philippe, the man behind the scenes of Daniel's numerous travel videos. Philippe does it all: he films, he directs, he edits. Daniel uses some basic film terminology in his description of Philippe: 

 

Laissez-moi vous présenter mon compagnon de tournage, Philippe, qui réalise, qui monte et qui fait l'ensemble de ce que vous ne voyez pas.
Let me present to you my filming companion, Philippe, who directs, who edits, and who does everything that you don't see. 
Cap. 47-48, Voyage en France: Montmorency - Part 4

 

Tournage comes from the verb tourner, which, as you might have guessed, means "to turn." But in movie parlance, tourner means "to film" (and le tournage means "filming" or "film shoot"). To remember this, just think of film reels turning on an old movie camera. 

 

We discussed the verb réaliser in a previous lesson. Among its many meanings is "to direct" a film or stage production. The related word réalisateur (masculine) or réalisatrice (feminine) means "director" or "filmmaker"—in other words, the person who "realizes" the film.

 

Yabla has a lesson on monter as well! Its basic meanings are "to climb" and "to put up," but monter can also mean "to edit" a film. The English word "montage" refers to a specific technique of combining short clips to form a continuous sequence, but the French le montage refers more generally to the "editing" of a film. 

 

Another Yabla video takes us to Concarneau in Brittany, where a film crew documented the town's rich maritime heritage. You'll find some interesting film-related words at the beginning of the video:

 

Moteur! Séance de tournage sur le port de Concarneau. En face de l'objectif, le maître du port.
ActionFilming session on the Concarneau harbor. In front of the camera lens, the harbormaster.
Cap. 1-3, Télévision Bretagne Ouest: Concarneau - Un tournage sur la vie maritime

 

Moteur usually just means "motor" or "engine," but here it means "Action!" This is actually a shortened version of the phrase silence, moteur, action! (literally, "silence, motor, action!"), the French equivalent of "lights, camera, action!" You can also say moteur, ça tourne, action! ("motor, it's filming, action!"). 

 

You might be wondering what a "camera lens" has to do with an "objective." If you consider that un objectif also means "an aim," the relationship might be clearer. A filmmaker or photographer aims their camera lens at their subject, so it makes sense that objectif is the word for "camera lens." 

 

Check out this lesson for some more French film words.
 
Thanks for reading! Stay tuned for our next lesson and tweet us @yabla or send your topic suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Telling Jokes in French

Our friend Lionel is known for his witty puns and excellent comedic timing. He even filmed a standup set for Yabla! Apparently, a good sense of humor runs in his family. In Lionel's latest video, his cousin Jean-Pierre cracks a joke about the Vosges mountain range: 

 

Y a une blague à propos des Vosges du Nord. Quand on voit pas les Vosges du Nord, c'est qu'il pleut. Et quand on les voit bien, c'est qu'il va pleuvoir. 
There's a joke about the Northern Vosges. When you don't see the Northern Vosges, it's because it's raining. And when you see them clearly, it means it's going to rain. 
Cap. 85-90, Lionel: à Lindre-Basse - Part 7

 

If you didn't laugh at Jean-Pierre's joke, you probably had to be there (near the Northern Vosges, that is). 

 

Une blague doesn't only refer to a verbal joke. It can also be a trick or a prank you play on someone: 

 

On va leur faire une bonne blague!
We're going to play a nice trick on them!
Cap. 23, Il était une fois... Notre Terre: 9. Les écosystèmes - Part 4

 

Une farce and un tour are the other words for "trick," "prank," or "practical joke":

 

Une farce joyeuse et de franche gaieté. 
A joyous prank with uninhibited gaiety.
Cap. 10, Il était une fois... l’Homme: 6. Le siècle de Périclès - Part 4

 

Ils ont plus d'un tour dans leur sac. 
They have more than one trick in their bag [up their sleeves].
Cap. 34, Il était une fois... La vie: 14. La bouche et les dents - Part 6

 

There's also another word for "joke": une plaisanterie. This example explains what happens in your body when you laugh at a joke: 

 

Vous savez que ce sont les lèvres glottiques qui sous l'effet d'une plaisanterie se mettent à vibrer.
You know that it's the glottic folds that start vibrating when a joke is told.
Cap. 8-9, Le Journal: Les effets bénéfiques du rire!

 

So how do you say "to crack a joke" or "to tell a joke" in French? You can either say raconter une plaisanterie or raconter une blague

 

Il aime raconter des plaisanteries [or des blagues] grivoises.
He loves to tell dirty jokes

 

But if you're talking about "joking" or "joking/messing around," then you use the verbs plaisanter or blaguer:

 

Ils blaguaient tout le temps pendant leur enfance.
They always used to joke around when they were little. 

 

Tu plaisantes! Je ne crois pas ça. -Non, je ne plaisante pas! 
You're kidding! I don't believe that. -No, I'm not kidding!

 

Thanks for reading! We'll be back soon with a new lesson. Sans blague! (No joke!)

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Ne faites pas de bêtises!

Animals are generally (and perhaps unjustly) considered to be less intelligent than humans, which explains why the French word bête can mean both "beast" and "stupid":

 

Après tout, c'est bête la guerre.
After all, war is stupid
Cap. 25, Il était une fois - les Explorateurs: 15. Bruce et les sources du Nil - Part 7

 

The related noun bêtise can mean anything along the lines of "stupidity" or "idiocy." You can use it in a general sense to talk about "something stupid":

 

Après les parents, ils me disent, quand ils font une bêtise...
Later the parents tell me, when they do something stupid...
Cap. 56, Banlieues françaises: jeunes et policiers, l'impossible réconciliation? - Part 1

 

Or you might use it to refer to something more specific, such as a mistake. Une bêtise isn't just any old mistake, but a particularly stupid one:

 

Vous allez réparer vos bêtises.
You're going to repair your stupid mistakes.
Cap. 31, Il était une fois - Notre Terre: 9. Les écosystèmes - Part 4

 

Of course, if you tell someone he or she has made a stupid mistake, you could be implying that the person him or herself is stupid. Une erreur is a more neutral word for "mistake" that doesn't connote stupidity:

 

Elle fait une terrible erreur
She's making a terrible mistake
Cap. 4, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mes grands-parents sont infidèles - Part 3

 

The plural bêtises is often used to refer to "nonsense," "mischief," or any kind of naughty behavior:

 

Arrête tes bêtises.
Stop your nonsense.
Cap. 28, Agnès Varda: Le lion volatil - Part 2

 

Mais si on fait des bêtises, on sait jamais...
But if we get into mischief, you never know...
Cap. 89, Actu Vingtième: Le Repas des anciens

 

If you argue with someone over des bêtises, you're arguing over nothing:

 

Mes enfants se disputent toujours pour des bêtises.
My kids are always arguing with each other over nothing.

 

When it comes to learning a language, there's no such thing as a stupid mistake. So don't fret if you forget an accent mark or type in the wrong word in a Yabla game—you've just made a simple erreur, not une bêtise!

 

For fun, here's an 80s throwback for you: Sabine Paturel's "Les Bêtises," which was a smash hit in France in 1986. 

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Words for Good and Bad

In a recent lesson, we talked about the words bon/bonne and mauvais/mauvaise, which respectively mean "good" and "bad," but can also mean "right" and "wrong" depending on context. It's easy to confuse these with the words bien and mal, which have similar meanings ("well" and "badly/poorly") but different functions. 

 

Bon/bonne and mauvais/mauvaise are adjectives, which means they change according to the number and gender of the noun they modify:

 

Alors justement je crois que c'est vraiment une très bonne chose...
So, exactly, I think that it's really a very good thing...
Cap. 56, Alsace 20: 100 recettes pour 100 vins

 

Il y a eu la destruction de la partie de maison existante qui était en très mauvais état.
There was the destruction of the existing part of the house that was in very bad shape.
Cap. 22, Thomas: Thomas et sa maison

 

On the other hand, bien and mal are adverbs, which can modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Unlike adjectives, these never change in French: 

 

...un grand orfèvre parisien que Balzac connaissait bien.
...a great Parisian goldsmith whom Balzac knew well.
Cap. 28, Exposition: Balzac, architecte d'intérieurs

 

Il paraît que les voyages en train finissent mal en général
It seems that train rides generally end badly
Cap. 54, Grand Corps Malade: Les Voyages en train

 

Just as it's ungrammatical to say "whom Balzac knew good" and "train rides generally end bad" in English, in French you can't say que Balzac connaissait bon or les voyages en train finissent mauvais. You have to use bien/mal

 

Bien and mal can also function as nouns. In philosophical terms, they refer to "good" and "evil":

 

Quelle est la différence entre le bien et le mal
What is the difference between good and evil

 

But they have more down-to-earth meanings as well. For instance, the plural les biens means "goods," as in commodities or possessions. And mal can also refer to illness or harm, as in the expressions avoir mal and faire mal:

 

J'ai mal à l'oreille.
I have an earache

 

Ne me fais pas mal
Don't hurt me! 

 

In everyday speech, bon and bien are also used as interjections, in which case they're more or less interchangeable. They both correspond to the English interjection "well" in this context:

 

Eh bien, j'espère que vous avez passé un bon moment, ici, sur Arles.
Well, I hope you had a good time here, in Arles.
Cap. 21, Arles: Un Petit Tour d'Arles - Part 3

 

Bon, il y a des raisons personnelles évidemment qui jouent.
Well, obviously there are personal reasons that come into play.
Cap. 17, Alphabétisation: des filles au Sénégal

 

It's sometimes hard to tell the difference between good and bad, but at least now you know the difference between bon, mauvais, bien, and mal
 
Stay tuned for our next lesson and tweet us @yabla or send your topic suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Coin coin!

In a recent video, Lionel samples some beer at a local market in the town of Toul. In classic Lionel fashion, he delivers a witty pun: 

 

Quand on boit de la bière Coin Coin il faut vivre dans une pièce sans coins.
When you drink "Coin Coin" [Quack Quack] beer, you need to live in a room without corners.
Cap. 36-37, Lionel: Les bières artisanales Coin Coin

 

The name of the beer is derived from the onomatopoeic expression coin coin, or "quack quack," as in the sound a duck makes (check out this page for some more French animal sounds). When not repeated, the word coin has several meanings. As Lionel demonstrates, un coin usually means "a corner." He's talking specifically about the corner of a room, but un coin can also be a street corner: 

 

Au coin de la rue Fabre et de la rue Laurier...
At the corner of Rue Fabre [Fabre Street] and Rue Laurier [Laurier Street]...
Cap. 39, Canadian Chocolate Seller: Chocolats

 

The other word for "corner" in French is angle (which literally means "angle," as you may have guessed). So you could just as easily say l'angle de la pièce (the corner of the room) or l'angle de la rue (the street corner). 

 

Sometimes, un coin can refer not simply to a street corner, but to a broader area of a town or city:

 

De l'extérieur, on dit que c'est un coin... un quartier chaud.
Outsiders say that this is an area... a rough neighborhood.
Cap. 29, Actus de Quartier: Fête de quartier Python-Duvernois - Part 3

 

Or it can have a more general locational meaning, like "spot" or "place":

 

J'ai trouvé un coin sympa au bord de l'eau. 
I found a nice spot on the waterfront. 

 

There's also the adjectival phrase du coin, which refers to all things local: 

 

Pas de polémique: qu'ils soient du coin ou qu'ils viennent de loin...
No argument: whether they're from around here or from far away...
Cap. 14, Le Journal: Un automne bien chaud

 

Nous sommes allés au bistrot du coin
We went to the local bistro. 

 

Coin is a false cognate of the English word "coin." The word for "coin" is pièce, which also means "room," as in Lionel's example above. Try not to get them confused! 

 

C'est la pièce de dix euros qui représente la région.
It's the ten-euro coin that represents the region.
Cap. 2, Normandie TV: La pièce de 10 euros bas-normande 

 

You can find many expressions featuring coin on this page. Keep them dans un coin de la tête (at the back of your mind) for whenever you speak French! 

 

Tweet us @yabla or send your topic suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Getting Angry in French

We all know that when you're angry about something, it's better to talk about your emotions than to keep them pent up inside. If you ever need to vent in French, there are several constructions you can use to express your anger.

 

Two of these constructions employ the French word for anger, la colère (related to the English word "choleric," meaning "bad-tempered" or "irritable"). As in English, there's a distinction in French between being angry (être en colère) and getting angry (se mettre en colère, literally, "to put oneself in anger"):

 

J'étais très en colère contre Harold.
I was very angry at Harold.
Cap. 28, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Notre appartement est hanté - Part 6

 

Elle devenait nerveuse, elle se mettait en colère.
She became nervous, she got angry.
Caption 3, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Mon père n'est pas mort - Part 2

 

Note the preposition contre in the example above. Whereas in English you can be angry "at" or "with" someone, in French you're angry "against" someone. 

 

If you're really angry about something, you can use the construction fou/folle de (which we discussed in a previous lesson): 

 

Elles sont folles de colèrefolles de rage, horripilées. 
They are wild with angerraging mad, incensed. 
Cap. 52-54, Le saviez-vous? - Les synonymes 

 

Besides expressions with colère, the other main way of describing anger in French is with the adjective fâché(e) (angry) or the reflexive verb se fâcher (to get angry):

 

Tu es fâché contre Léon?
Are you angry with Leon?
Cap. 2, Les zooriginaux: Léa jacta est - Part 3

 

Ça va, vieux, te fâche pas!
It's OK, old pal, don't get upset!
Cap. 22, Il était une fois... L’Espace: 3. La planète verte - Part 3

 

Don't confuse the adjective fâché(e) with the adjective fâcheux/fâcheuse, which has a slightly more subdued meaning. It can mean anything along the lines of "annoying," "unfortunate," "regrettable," or "aggravating":

 

C'est fâcheux qu'il ne puisse pas venir. 
It's unfortunate that he can't come. 

 

We hope there was nothing in this lesson that made you angry! Stay tuned for our next lesson and tweet us @yabla or send your topic suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Malin: Smart or Evil?

The adjective malin appears in two recent videos on Yabla, and it has two very different meanings in each. In the last segment of Le Jour où tout a basculé: Notre appartement est hanté, we finally get to the bottom of the spooky occurrences in Harold and Claire's apartment, thanks to Harold's clever investigations:

 

Mais cette fois-ci, le couple s'est attaqué à un adversaire plus malin que les autres. 
But this time, the couple tackled an opponent who was smarter than the others.
Cap. 34, Le Jour où tout a basculé: Notre appartement est hanté - Part 8

 

And in Lionel's visit to Toul Cathedral, we learn about the cathedral's gargoyles and what they represent: 

 

Ici là-bas, on a une représentation du diable, du malin, d'un démon.
Here, over there, we have a representation of the devil, of the evil one, of a demon.
Cap. 26-27, Lionel: La Cathédrale de Toul - Part 2

 

While malin is most often used as an adjective meaning "smart," it can also have darker undertones, especially when used as a noun. In the second example, the tour guide uses it as a synonym for the devil, but un malin can also just refer to a trickster or a wily person. And don't forget that "smart" can have a negative connotation in English too:

 

Ça sera peut-être d'avoir l'air malin dans l'interview, hein.
It might be looking like a smart aleck in the interview, you know?
Cap. 21, Micro-Trottoirs: Un rêve récurrent?

 

Bien sûr. Et nous aussi on voudrait du sucre, gros malin!
Of course. And us too, we would like some sugar, wise guy!
Cap. 12, Il était une fois... la vie: 14. La bouche et les dents - Part 3

 

Ne fais pas le malin avec moi. 
Don't get smart with me. 

 

Note that the feminine form of malin isn't maline, but maligne:

 

Et même, très maligne, ma petite Clémentine!
And even very clever, my little Clémentine!
Cap. 46, Manon et Clémentine: Conjugaison du verbe être

 

You'll also see this -in/-igne ending in the word bénin/bénigne (benign, minor), which is actually an antonym of malin/maligneune tumeur maligne is a malignant tumor, and une tumeur bénigne is a benign tumor.  

 

Manu le Malin is a famous French hardcore DJ. You can check out some interviews with him on Yabla. 

 

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